September 5, 2008
Now find out which are India's most and least corrupt states. A survey conducted by Transparency International-India and the Centre for Media Studies in New Delhi has for the first time released the list of India's most and least corrupt states.
The survey puts India's states into four categories: Alarmingly Corrupt; Very Highly Corrupt; Highly Corrupt; and Moderately Corrupt.
The survey says that there are four states in the 'Alarmingly Corrupt' category, led by Bihar.
Bihar is the 12th largest Indian state in terms of area and the third largest when it comes to population. Biharis are far behind other Indian in human and economic development terms, (source, Wikipedia) thus fuelling corruption and migration.
The survey is a part of efforts by Transparency International - India to reduce corruption by promoting and supporting transparent and ethical practices in the government sector.
It had randomly selected a sample of 22,728 BPL (below poverty line that is poorest) households from all across the country and they were surveyed to ascertain which were the most unhappy and extorted lot and in which state.
Jammu & Kashmir
J&K is also in the 'Alarmingly Corrupt' category.
The strife-torn Indian state has been a constant battleground between Indian security forces and terrorists.
Terror strikes have reduced the once-booming tourism trade in the state to nothing but a distant memory.
Corruption is thus rife in this state, currently under President's Rule.
About the survey
The survey found that the police department in all these states tops the corruption chart, followed by others -- including the forest department, land records/registration and housing.
Electricity, banking, education, water supply and the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme fell under the other corrupt services.
Madhya Pradesh, which according to the Transperancy Internation India survey is 'Alarmingly Corrupt,' has since long been a victim of nepotism and corruption.
The chief minister of the mineral-rich state is Shivraj Singh Chouhan.
More about the TI-India survey
The survey ascertained that nearly Rs 883 crore (Rs 8.83 billion) was paid as bribes in the year 2007 by BPL (below poverty line) families to avail of these public services -which include getting a ration card as well as for admissions in schools. Of the entire bribe money, Rs 214.8 crore (Rs 2.148 billion) was paid to the police.
Uttar Pradesh's economic mainstay is agriculture. Most of the state's employed people are engaged in this activity. It is one of India's major tourist hubs, especially since it houses the magnificent Taj Mahal in Agra..
The state also has some large manufacturing units and is one of the top IT centres in India too.
The state is fighting a losing battle against corruption, and has been categorized in the 'Alarmingly Corrupt' bracket.
It is India's most populous state. Mayawati is the state's current chief minister.
Karnataka is one of India's most economically progressive states, which is why the bracketing of the state among the 'Very Highly Corrupt' states comes as a surprise.
It's growth has been amongst the fastest in the country, and it has been the hub for the software sector and also for industries.
The chief minister of the state is B S Yeddyurappa.
One of India's most famous tourist destinations, Rajasthan's economy is most dependent on agriculture and mining. The state is in the 'Very Highly Corrupt' category.
Rajasthan Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje will have to fight tooth and nail to curb the menace of rising corruption.
Tamil Nadu is also a highly industrialised Indian state. It also has a vibrant services sector.
The fact that the state is categorized as being 'Very Highly Corrupt' is quite surprising as Tamil Nadu is also one of India's most literate state, bursting with great talent across all sectors of human activity. Its per capita income too is higher than the national average.
It is also among the highest recipients of foreign direct investment in India. M Karunanidhi is the state chief minister.
Chhattisgarh is one of India's fastest growing states. Mineral rich and bursting with great agricultural potential, the state has been a victim of long-time neglect.
Chief Minister Raman Singh now has his task cut out for himself with the state being categorized as 'Highly Corrupt.'
The state is now giving special attention to education and breeding talent, and also has big plans to be biofuel self-sufficient by 2015 by planting crops of jatropha (source: Wikipedia).
India's capital Delhi is one of India's richest states with its per capita income more than twice the national average. The state is the seat of the Indian government and, perhaps, that makes it vulnerable to corruption as industrialists and common folk alike throng the corridors of power to get their 'work done.'
It is the nation's second financial capital after Mumbai. The state is highly industrialised and also has a booming services sector.
According to Transparency International India, Delhi is 'Highly Corrupt.'
Sheila Dikshit is the chief minister of Delhi.
Gujarat is one of the most industrialised and among the richest states in India. India Inc has a big presence here. Some huge projects like the Reliance Industries' massive refinery are housed here. It also has a rich and flourishing agricultural sector, and is also blessed with rich mineral ore.
Yet corruption in the state is quite high and it is in the 'Highly Corrupt' category. Something for Chief Minister Narendra Modi to think and do something about.
Jharkhand, carved out of Bihar in the year 2000, is highly rich in minerals. It also is a heavily industrialized state.
Yet, for long, the state has been dogged by corruption at all levels of government, semi-government and private sector establishments. TI-India categorises Jharkhand as 'Highly Corrupt.'
Shibu Soren, the new chief minister of the state, is now faced with the gargantuan challenge of checking corruption and helping the state grow faster than ever.
For long the economy of Kerala, one of India's most literate states, had been financed by petro-dollars sent by people from the state working overseas, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
The state has been going through a series of problems trying to raise the level industrialisation, usher in a free market economy, attract higher foreign direct investment, and establish a healthy services sector. The domineering presence of Leftist unions has to an extent curbed Kerala's ambitions.
Yet, the standard of living in Kerala is among the best in India. The state has a very well developed tourism, banking and finance, and communications sectors. Yet it suffers from a high level of joblessness fuelling corruption. It has thus been categorized as 'Highly Corrupt.'
V S Achuthanandan is the state chief minister.
Mineral-rich Orissa is now attracting foreign direct investment and mega projects like no other state. The state is blessed with heavy iron ore deposits and many a steel plant.
Despite the high level of poverty in the state, Orissa has been in the forefront of privatization and economic reforms.
Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik's Orissa, however, is hardly free from corruption and is said to be 'Highly Corrupt.'
Andhra Pradesh, rich in agricultural and services sector also has a vibrant industrialised economy.
A vibrant information technology sector has seen the state emerge as one of India's largest exporters of IT and software services. This sector has also generated large-scale employment in the urban areas of the state.
But for Chief Minister Y S Rajasekhara Reddy things aren't all rosy. . . especially since he needs to curb the rampant corruption in the state that has been bracketed as 'Moderately Corrupt.'
Haryana has emerged as a major hub for IT and BPO firms. It is also a huge manufacturing base for many a global company, having received a massive amount of foreign direct investment.
The state's business-friendly policies have seen it grow on all parameters of economic development. It is also one of India's richest states.
Transparency International India, however, categorises it as 'Moderately Corrupt.' If corruption were to be reduced in the state, its prosperity and growth would be electrifying. Chief Minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda will, apart from industrialisation, have to now focus on this aspect of human development too.
Himachal Pradesh, blessed with stunning natural beauty, is a major tourist attraction. It has fairly impressive infrastructure in place and its economy is largely agriculture-dependent. The state also has mega hydro-electric projects.
The tentacles of corruption have Himachal too in its grip: the TI survey says it is 'Moderately Corrupt.'
Prem Kumar Dhumal is the state's chief minister.
Maharashtra is India's most industrialised state. It is also one of the richest.
It has a great mix of giant industrial units, well developed agricultural base, flourishing services sector, a fairly free market economy, and a booming financial, banking, and insurance sector.
The state is home to India's financial capital Mumbai, and to the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange. It is also home to Bollywood, the nation's Hindi film and television industry.
Although, a 'Moderately Corrupt' state, Maharashtra needs to weed out the menace to grow ever faster economically and on the human development index. Vilasrao Deshmukh is current chief minister of the state.
Punjab has an impressive mix of industrial and agricultural economy. The hub of many a manufacturing unit, Punjab's mainstay is agriculture.
It is also ranked amongst India's richest states. Unfortunately, it is also has widespread corruption which has seen TI categorise it as being 'Moderately Corrupt,' something that should worry Chief Minister Parkash Singh Badal.
Uttarakhand was formed when it was carved out of Uttar Pradesh.
The new state has been trying to attract foreign and domestic companies to invest in the state by giving tax concessions. It has a very entrepreneur-friendly policy.
Uttarakhand is blessed with natural beauty that helps promote tourism. It also has many dams where it seeks investment to set up huge power projects.
Corruption here is comparatively low and it is categorised as 'Moderately Corrupt,' something Chief Minister B C Khanduri can take some solace from.
The economy of West Bengal, currently in the news due to the huge controversy over Tata Motors' small car plant at Singur, depends mainly on agriculture.
However, the Left-ruled state has been trying to break through the shackles of anti-liberalisation and aggressive workers' unions, with Chief Minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharya at the helm of affairs.
The state has been trying to attract investment in the industries and services sectors, but the going has been slow and painful.
Being economically backward, the state becomes a hotbed for corruption. Yet, the menace is not as debilitating here as in some other -- and richer -- Indian states. TI-India survey says West Bengal is 'Moderately Corrupt.'
West Bengal, despite its problems, is one of the fastest growing states in India due to rapid industrialisation and a booming information technology sector. By the way, the West Bengal is also a power-surplus state.